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在本文中,将探讨使用 k3s 的 kine 项目来替换掉 etcd,并通过实验使用 kubeadm 去 run 一个 k8s 集群,并用 k3s 的 kine 项目来替换掉 etcd。

为什么使用 kine

etcd 在 Kubernetes 之外基本上没有应用的场景,并且 etcd 迭代也比较慢,由于没有人愿意维护因此一直在衰退 [1],并且,Kubernetes 集群中,etcd 也是一个影响集群规模的重大因素。并且 K3S 存在一个项目 Kine 可以使用关系型数据库运行,这样对集群维护者来说可以不需要维护复杂的 etcd 集群,由于关系型数据库有很多高可用方案,这将使得 k8s 集群规模变成了无限可能。

Kine 介绍

前文提到,kubernetes (kube-apiserver) 与 etcd 是耦合的,如果我们要使用 RDBMS 去替换 etcd 就需要实现 etcd 的接口,那么这个项目就是 Kine [2]

Kine 是一个 etcdshim,处于 kube-apiserver 和 RDBMS 的中间层,它实现了 etcdAPI的子集(不是etcd的全部功能),Kine 在 RDBMS 数据库之上实现了简单的多版本并发控制;将所有信息存储在一个表中;每行存储此 key 的修订, key, 当前值, 先前值, 先前修订,以及表示该 Key 是已创建还是已删除的标记,通过这种机制可以作为 shim 层来替换 etcd。

简单提一句,shim 是计算机程序设计中的术语,表现为一个小型函数库,服务等,通过截取 API 调用,修改传入参数,来处理自行处理对应操作或者将操作交由其它地方执行。

总的来说 shim 是一种可以在新环境中支持老 API,也可以在老环境里支持新 API 辅助运行库或服务,在云原生场景中,我们经常看到 docker-shim,cri-shim 等。

前提条件

本文实验环境使用的软件版本如下

软件/硬件 版本
操作系统 Debian 11(bullseye) 2C/4G
Kubernetes版本 v1.28.11(截至文章编写时间的最新版)
Kubernetes集群部署工具 kubeadm
Kine v0.11.10 (截至文章编写时间的最新版)
MySQL Docker运行,镜像 mysql:5.7

使用 kubeadm 构建控制平面

为了展现 kine 的作用,首先我们需要准备一个 k8s 集群,这里简单使用 kubeadm + containerd 来构建一个 kuebrnetes 集群。

安装 containerd

载入内核依赖项

containerd 或 docker 的安装都需要内核支持 overlaybr_netfilter 模块,overlay 为 containerd 运行的文件系统,netfiler 用于维护容器内 (inter-container) 的网络。所以我们需要加载对应的内核模块。

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cat <<EOF | tee /etc/modules-load.d/containerd.conf
overlay
br_netfilter
EOF

手动执行下面命令

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modprobe overlay && \
modprobe br_netfilter

通过仓库 containerd

contanerd 是作为 docker-ce 的下层,所以很多 Linux 发行版都有对应的包管理工具的仓库,这里面维护了基本上比较新的版本,可以直接在对应操作系统下载

CentOS

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yum install yum-utils -y && \
yum-config-manager --add-repo https://download.docker.com/linux/centos/docker-ce.repo && \
yum install containerd.io -y

Debian

Debian仓库中通常都有比较新版本的 containerd,可以直接安装

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apt list|grep containerd

安装

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apt -y install containerd

离线安装

如果需要离线环境安装的话,可以在手动下载 containerd 和 runc 后传入内网

下载 Containerd 的二进制包,这里下载containerd-<VERSION>-<OS>-<ARCH>.tar.gz 格式名称的发行版,后边在单独下载安装 runc

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wget https://github.com/containerd/containerd/releases/download/v1.7.3/containerd-1.7.3-linux-amd64.tar.gz

将其解压缩到 /usr/local 下:

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tar Cxzvf /usr/local containerd-1.7.3-linux-amd64.tar.gz

接下来从 runc 的 github 上下载安装 runc,该二进制文件是静态构建的,并且应该适用于任何Linux发行版。

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wget https://github.com/opencontainers/runc/releases/download/v1.1.9/runc.amd64
install -m 755 runc.amd64 /usr/local/sbin/runc

为了通过 systemd 管理 containerd,请还需要从仓库中下载 containerd.service 单元文件

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cat << EOF > /usr/lib/systemd/system/containerd.service
[Unit]
Description=containerd container runtime
Documentation=https://containerd.io
After=network.target local-fs.target

[Service]
#uncomment to enable the experimental sbservice (sandboxed) version of containerd/cri integration
#Environment="ENABLE_CRI_SANDBOXES=sandboxed"
ExecStartPre=-/sbin/modprobe overlay
ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/containerd

Type=notify
Delegate=yes
KillMode=process
Restart=always
RestartSec=5
# Having non-zero Limit*s causes performance problems due to accounting overhead
# in the kernel. We recommend using cgroups to do container-local accounting.
LimitNPROC=infinity
LimitCORE=infinity
LimitNOFILE=infinity
# Comment TasksMax if your systemd version does not supports it.
# Only systemd 226 and above support this version.
TasksMax=infinity
OOMScoreAdjust=-999

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

配置配置文件

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mkdir -p /etc/containerd && \
containerd config default | sudo tee /etc/containerd/config.toml

配置驱动为 systemd

将配置文件修改为实例所述

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[plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri".containerd.runtimes]
[plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri".containerd.runtimes.runc]
          runtime_type = "io.containerd.runc.v2"
          runtime_engine = ""
          runtime_root = ""
          privileged_without_host_devices = false
          base_runtime_spec = ""

[plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri".containerd.runtimes.runc.options]
          SystemdCgroup = true

一键修改命令

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sed -i "s/SystemdCgroup = false/SystemdCgroup = true/g"  "${CONTAINDERD_CONFIG_PATH}"

启动服务

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systemctl enable --now containerd && \
systemctl restart containerd

使用kubeadm构建集群

加载内核依赖项

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cat > /etc/modules-load.d/kubernetes.conf <<EOF
ip_vs
ip_vs_rr
ip_vs_wrr
ip_vs_sh
EOF

执行以下命令使配置立即生效:

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modprobe ip_vs && \
modprobe ip_vs_rr && \
modprobe ip_vs_wrr && \
modprobe ip_vs_sh

安装kubeadm kubelet kubectl

安装 kubeadm 可以参考官网的步骤来 [3]

使用基于debian 包管理仓库

使用 Kubernetes apt 仓库

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apt-get install -y apt-transport-https ca-certificates curl gpg

下载公共签名key

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curl -fsSL https://pkgs.k8s.io/core:/stable:/v1.28/deb/Release.key | sudo gpg --dearmor -o /etc/apt/keyrings/kubernetes-apt-keyring.gpg

添加适合的 k8s 版本仓库,这里是 1.28

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# This overwrites any existing configuration in /etc/apt/sources.list.d/kubernetes.list
echo 'deb [signed-by=/etc/apt/keyrings/kubernetes-apt-keyring.gpg] https://pkgs.k8s.io/core:/stable:/v1.28/deb/ /' | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/kubernetes.list

更新包索引

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apt update && \
apt install -y kubelet=1.28.11-1.1 kubeadm=1.28.11-1.1 kubectl=1.28.11-1.1

不使用包管理工具

下载 kubeadm, kubelet, kubectl 二进制文件

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# 这个文件内包含的是 kubernetes 最新稳定版的版本号,如果要安装最新版可以取消掉这行注释
# RELEASE="$(curl -sSL https://dl.k8s.io/release/stable.txt)"
RELEASE="v1.28.11"
ARCH="amd64"
DOWNLOAD_DIR="/usr/local/bin"
mkdir -p "$DOWNLOAD_DIR"

cd $DOWNLOAD_DIR
sudo curl -L --remote-name-all https://dl.k8s.io/release/${RELEASE}/bin/linux/${ARCH}/{kubeadm,kubelet}
sudo chmod +x {kubeadm,kubelet}

下载 kubelet 的 system单元文件 或手动添加所需的 systemd 单元文件

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# v0.16.2 是一个固定的版本号,不是 kubernetes 版本
RELEASE_VERSION="v0.16.2"
curl -sSL "https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/release/${RELEASE_VERSION}/cmd/krel/templates/latest/kubelet/kubelet.service" | sed "s:/usr/bin:${DOWNLOAD_DIR}:g" | sudo tee /etc/systemd/system/kubelet.service

# kubelet.service 是一个单元文件
# systemd 的 service.d 目录是一个固定写法,这里表示可以使用 .conf 结尾的文件来覆盖这个服务的单元文件
mkdir -p /etc/systemd/system/kubelet.service.d
curl -sSL "https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/release/${RELEASE_VERSION}/cmd/krel/templates/latest/kubeadm/10-kubeadm.conf" | sed "s:/usr/bin:${DOWNLOAD_DIR}:g" | sudo tee /etc/systemd/system/kubelet.service.d/10-kubeadm.conf

或者手动创建 kubelet.serivce 的 systemd 的单元文件

这个文件是将 rpm 或 dpkg 包的 kubelet.service 和上述 10-kubeadm.conf 融合为一起的,效果是相同的

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cat << EOF > /usr/lib/systemd/system/kubelet.serivce
[Unit]
Description=kubelet: The Kubernetes Node Agent
Documentation=https://kubernetes.io/docs/
Wants=network-online.target
After=network-online.target

# Note: This dropin only works with kubeadm and kubelet v1.11+
[Service]
Environment="KUBELET_KUBECONFIG_ARGS=--bootstrap-kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/bootstrap-kubelet.conf --kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/kubelet.conf"
Environment="KUBELET_CONFIG_ARGS=--config=/var/lib/kubelet/config.yaml"
# This is a file that "kubeadm init" and "kubeadm join" generates at runtime, populating the KUBELET_KUBEADM_ARGS variable dynamically
EnvironmentFile=-/var/lib/kubelet/kubeadm-flags.env
# This is a file that the user can use for overrides of the kubelet args as a last resort. Preferably, the user should use
# the .NodeRegistration.KubeletExtraArgs object in the configuration files instead. KUBELET_EXTRA_ARGS should be sourced from this file.
EnvironmentFile=-/etc/sysconfig/kubelet
ExecStart=/usr/bin/kubelet $KUBELET_KUBECONFIG_ARGS $KUBELET_CONFIG_ARGS $KUBELET_KUBEADM_ARGS $KUBELET_EXTRA_ARGS
Restart=always
StartLimitInterval=0
RestartSec=10

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

离线环境镜像下载

列出所使用的镜像

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$ kubeadm config images list --kubernetes-version=1.28.8
registry.k8s.io/kube-apiserver:v1.28.8
registry.k8s.io/kube-controller-manager:v1.28.8
registry.k8s.io/kube-scheduler:v1.28.8
registry.k8s.io/kube-proxy:v1.28.8
registry.k8s.io/pause:3.9
registry.k8s.io/etcd:3.5.12-0
registry.k8s.io/coredns/coredns:v1.10.1

下载对应镜像,并上传到私有仓库

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for n in `./kubeadm config images list --kubernetes-version=1.28.11`;
do
    docker pull $n; docker tag $n `echo $n | sed 's|registry.k8s.io|img.xxxx.com/system|'`
    docker push `echo $n | sed 's|registry.k8s.io|img.xxx.com/system|'`
done

生成配置文件

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./kubeadm config images list --image-repository img.xxx.com/system --kubernetes-version=v1.28.11

# 生成对应组件的的 kubeconfig
# kubelet
kubeadm config print init-defaults --component-configs KubeletConfiguration|grep -A 1000 'apiVersion: kubelet.config.k8s.io'|sed 's|0s|30s|g'
# kube-proxy
kubeadm config print init-defaults --component-configs KubeProxyConfiguration|grep -A 1000 'kubeproxy.config.k8s.io/'|sed 's|0s|30s|g'

使用配置文件安装

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kubeadm init --config kube.yaml  -v 10

使用命令初始化

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kubeadm init \
    --image-repository=img.xxx.com/system \
    --pod-network-cidr=10.10.0.0/16 \
    --service-cidr=10.11.0.0/24 \
    --kubernetes-version=v1.28.11 \
    --control-plane-endpoint=`hostname -I` \
    --apiserver-advertise-address=`hostname -I` \
    --apiserver-cert-extra-sans=`hostname -I` \
    --v=10

这个时候控制平面已经可以正常工作了

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$ kubectl --kubeconfig /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf  get pods -n kube-system
NAME                           READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
coredns-5dd5756b68-nvqwf       0/1     Pending   0          16h
coredns-5dd5756b68-t2tj5       0/1     Pending   0          16h
etcd-node                      1/1     Running   0          16h
kube-apiserver-node            1/1     Running   0          16h
kube-controller-manager-node   1/1     Running   0          16h
kube-proxy-g6fpc               1/1     Running   0          16h
kube-scheduler-node            1/1     Running   0          16h

使用 kine 来替换 etcd

查看官方示例

首先根据 kine 官方 example 来查看最小示例的来学习如何使用 kine [4],通过文章得知,kine 运行有两种方式,kine 与数据库之间的使用 ssl 链接。

mysql

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kine --endpoint "mysql://root:$PASSWORD@tcp(localhost:3306)/kine"
--ca-file ca.crt --cert-file server.crt --key-file server.key

postgres

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kine --endpoint="postgres://$(POSTGRES_USERNAME):$(POSTGRES_PASSWORD)@localhost:5432/postgres"
      --ca-file=/var/lib/postgresql/ca.crt
      --cert-file=/var/lib/postgresql/server.crt
      --key-file=/var/lib/postgresql/server.key

这时我们需要查看一下 kine 的参数

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GLOBAL OPTIONS:
   --listen-address value                     (default: "0.0.0.0:2379")
   --endpoint value                           Storage endpoint (default is sqlite)
   --ca-file value                            CA cert for DB connection
   --cert-file value                          Certificate for DB connection
   --server-cert-file value                   Certificate for etcd connection
   --server-key-file value                    Key file for etcd connection
   --datastore-max-idle-connections value     Maximum number of idle connections retained by datastore. If value = 0, the system default will be used. If value < 0, idle connections will not be reused. (default: 0)
   --datastore-max-open-connections value     Maximum number of open connections used by datastore. If value <= 0, then there is no limit (default: 0)
   --datastore-connection-max-lifetime value  Maximum amount of time a connection may be reused. If value <= 0, then there is no limit. (default: 0s)
   --key-file value                           Key file for DB connection
   --metrics-bind-address value               The address the metric endpoint binds to. Default :8080, set 0 to disable metrics serving. (default: ":8080")
   --slow-sql-threshold value                 The duration which SQL executed longer than will be logged. Default 1s, set <= 0 to disable slow SQL log. (default: 1s)
   --metrics-enable-profiling                 Enable net/http/pprof handlers on the metrics bind address. Default is false. (default: false)
   --watch-progress-notify-interval value     Interval between periodic watch progress notifications. Default is 10m. (default: 10m0s)
   --debug                                    (default: false)
   --help, -h                                 show help
   --version, -v                              print the version

通过参数得知,上面的除了官方给出的,kine 与数据库之间的连接也可以不使用 ssl,并通过 --server-cert-file--server-key-file 来作为 kube-apiserver 连接 etcd 所使用的证书指定给 kine 就可以启动了。

编写静态文件

这里我们只需要删除 /etc/kubernetes/manifests/etcd.yaml 并将 etcd 使用的证书挂载到 kine pod 中,那么我们编写 /etc/kubernetes/manifests/kine.yaml 文件。

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cat /etc/kubernetes/manifests/kine.yaml 
apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  creationTimestamp: null
  labels:
    component: kine
    tier: control-plane
  name: kine
  namespace: kube-system
spec:
  containers:
  - name: kine
    command: [ "/bin/sh", "-c", "--" ]
    args: [ 'kine --endpoint="mysql://root:111@tcp(10.0.0.1:3306)/kine"
 --server-cert-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/etcd/server.crt
 --server-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/etcd/server.key' ]
    image: docker.io/rancher/kine:v0.11.10-amd64
    imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
    resources:
      requests:
        cpu: 250m
    volumeMounts:
    - mountPath: /etc/kubernetes/pki/etcd
      name: etcd-certs
  hostNetwork: true
  volumes:
  - hostPath:
      path: /etc/kubernetes/pki/etcd
      type: DirectoryOrCreate
    name: etcd-certs
status: {}

kubuadm 生成的 kubelet 的 KubeletConfiguration 文件,中静态文件得路径参数 “staticPodPath”

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$ cat /var/lib/kubelet/config.yaml
apiVersion: kubelet.config.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: KubeletConfiguration
...
staticPodPath: /etc/kubernetes/manifests

这个时候可以启动 kubelet 服务,然后查看静态 Pod,此时可以看到, kube-system 名称空间 已经没有 etcd pod了

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$ kubectl --kubeconfig /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf get pod -n kube-system
NAMESPACE     NAME                           READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
kube-system   kine-node                      1/1     Running   0          17s
kube-system   kube-apiserver-node            1/1     Running   19         7m15s
kube-system   kube-controller-manager-node   1/1     Running   6          7m5s
kube-system   kube-scheduler-node            1/1     Running   6          7m2s

此时就可以继续部署 k8s 的 worker 节点和 CNI 了

探索 kine

我们可以查看数据库表结构,来探索 kine 是如何实现的 etcdAPI 转换的,我们可以看到,kine 会在启动参数中配置的库名 创建对应的数据库,并且仅有一个表 kine

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mysql> show databases;
+--------------------+
| Database           |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| kine               |
| mysql              |
| performance_schema |
| sys                |
+--------------------+
5 rows in set (0.01 sec)

mysql> show tables;
+----------------+
| Tables_in_kine |
+----------------+
| kine           |
+----------------+

观察表结构

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mysql> desc kine;
+-----------------+---------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| Field           | Type                | Null | Key | Default | Extra          |
+-----------------+---------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| id              | bigint(20) unsigned | NO   | PRI | NULL    | auto_increment |
| name            | varchar(630)        | YES  | MUL | NULL    |                |
| created         | int(11)             | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| deleted         | int(11)             | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| create_revision | bigint(20) unsigned | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| prev_revision   | bigint(20) unsigned | YES  | MUL | NULL    |                |
| lease           | int(11)             | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| value           | mediumblob          | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| old_value       | mediumblob          | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
+-----------------+---------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
9 rows in set (0.00 sec)

查看数据是如何存储的

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mysql> select count(id),name from kine group by name;
+-----------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| count(id) | name                                                                                        |
+-----------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|         1 | /registry/apiregistration.k8s.io/apiservices/v1.                                            |
|         1 | /registry/apiregistration.k8s.io/apiservices/v1.admissionregistration.k8s.io                |
|         1 | /registry/apiregistration.k8s.io/apiservices/v1.apiextensions.k8s.io                        |
|         1 | /registry/apiregistration.k8s.io/apiservices/v1.apps                                        |
|         1 | /registry/apiregistration.k8s.io/apiservices/v1.authentication.k8s.io                       |
|         1 | /registry/apiregistration.k8s.io/apiservices/v1.authorization.k8s.io                        |
|         1 | /registry/apiregistration.k8s.io/apiservices/v1.autoscaling                                 |
|         1 | /registry/apiregistration.k8s.io/apiservices/v1.batch                                       |
|         1 | /registry/apiregistration.k8s.io/apiservices/v1.certificates.k8s.io                         |
|         1 | /registry/apiregistration.k8s.io/apiservices/v1.coordination.k8s.io                         |
|         1 | /registry/apiregistration.k8s.io/apiservices/v1.discovery.k8s.io                            |
|         1 | /registry/apiregistration.k8s.io/apiservices/v1.events.k8s.io                               |
|         1 | /registry/apiregistration.k8s.io/apiservices/v1.networking.k8s.io                           |
|         1 | /registry/apiregistration.k8s.io/apiservices/v1.node.k8s.io                                 |
|         1 | /registry/apiregistration.k8s.io/apiservices/v1.policy                                      |
|         1 | /registry/apiregistration.k8s.io/apiservices/v1.rbac.authorization.k8s.io                   |
|         1 | /registry/apiregistration.k8s.io/apiservices/v1.scheduling.k8s.io                           |
|         1 | /registry/apiregistration.k8s.io/apiservices/v1.storage.k8s.io                              |
|         1 | /registry/apiregistration.k8s.io/apiservices/v1beta2.flowcontrol.apiserver.k8s.io           |
|         1 | /registry/apiregistration.k8s.io/apiservices/v1beta3.flowcontrol.apiserver.k8s.io           |
|         1 | /registry/apiregistration.k8s.io/apiservices/v2.autoscaling                                 |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/cluster-admin                                                 |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:basic-user                                             |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:controller:attachdetach-controller                     |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:controller:certificate-controller                      |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:controller:clusterrole-aggregation-controller          |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:controller:cronjob-controller                          |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:controller:daemon-set-controller                       |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:controller:deployment-controller                       |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:controller:disruption-controller                       |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:controller:endpoint-controller                         |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:controller:endpointslice-controller                    |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:controller:endpointslicemirroring-controller           |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:controller:ephemeral-volume-controller                 |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:controller:expand-controller                           |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:controller:generic-garbage-collector                   |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:controller:horizontal-pod-autoscaler                   |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:controller:job-controller                              |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:controller:namespace-controller                        |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:controller:node-controller                             |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:controller:persistent-volume-binder                    |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:controller:pod-garbage-collector                       |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:controller:pv-protection-controller                    |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:controller:pvc-protection-controller                   |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:controller:replicaset-controller                       |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:controller:replication-controller                      |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:controller:resourcequota-controller                    |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:controller:root-ca-cert-publisher                      |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:controller:route-controller                            |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:controller:service-account-controller                  |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:controller:service-controller                          |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:controller:statefulset-controller                      |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:controller:ttl-after-finished-controller               |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:controller:ttl-controller                              |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:discovery                                              |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:kube-controller-manager                                |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:kube-dns                                               |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:kube-scheduler                                         |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:monitoring                                             |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:node                                                   |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:node-proxier                                           |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:public-info-viewer                                     |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:service-account-issuer-discovery                       |
|         1 | /registry/clusterrolebindings/system:volume-scheduler                                       |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/admin                                                                |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/cluster-admin                                                        |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/edit                                                                 |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:aggregate-to-admin                                            |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:aggregate-to-edit                                             |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:aggregate-to-view                                             |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:auth-delegator                                                |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:basic-user                                                    |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:certificates.k8s.io:certificatesigningrequests:nodeclient     |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:certificates.k8s.io:certificatesigningrequests:selfnodeclient |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:certificates.k8s.io:kube-apiserver-client-approver            |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:certificates.k8s.io:kube-apiserver-client-kubelet-approver    |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:certificates.k8s.io:kubelet-serving-approver                  |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:certificates.k8s.io:legacy-unknown-approver                   |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:controller:attachdetach-controller                            |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:controller:certificate-controller                             |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:controller:clusterrole-aggregation-controller                 |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:controller:cronjob-controller                                 |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:controller:daemon-set-controller                              |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:controller:deployment-controller                              |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:controller:disruption-controller                              |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:controller:endpoint-controller                                |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:controller:endpointslice-controller                           |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:controller:endpointslicemirroring-controller                  |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:controller:ephemeral-volume-controller                        |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:controller:expand-controller                                  |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:controller:generic-garbage-collector                          |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:controller:horizontal-pod-autoscaler                          |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:controller:job-controller                                     |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:controller:namespace-controller                               |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:controller:node-controller                                    |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:controller:persistent-volume-binder                           |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:controller:pod-garbage-collector                              |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:controller:pv-protection-controller                           |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:controller:pvc-protection-controller                          |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:controller:replicaset-controller                              |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:controller:replication-controller                             |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:controller:resourcequota-controller                           |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:controller:root-ca-cert-publisher                             |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:controller:route-controller                                   |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:controller:service-account-controller                         |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:controller:service-controller                                 |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:controller:statefulset-controller                             |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:controller:ttl-after-finished-controller                      |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:controller:ttl-controller                                     |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:discovery                                                     |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:heapster                                                      |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:kube-aggregator                                               |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:kube-controller-manager                                       |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:kube-dns                                                      |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:kube-scheduler                                                |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:kubelet-api-admin                                             |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:monitoring                                                    |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:node                                                          |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:node-bootstrapper                                             |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:node-problem-detector                                         |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:node-proxier                                                  |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:persistent-volume-provisioner                                 |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:public-info-viewer                                            |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:service-account-issuer-discovery                              |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/system:volume-scheduler                                              |
|         1 | /registry/clusterroles/view                                                                 |
|         1 | /registry/configmaps/default/kube-root-ca.crt                                               |
|         1 | /registry/configmaps/kube-node-lease/kube-root-ca.crt                                       |
|         1 | /registry/configmaps/kube-public/kube-root-ca.crt                                           |
|         1 | /registry/configmaps/kube-system/extension-apiserver-authentication                         |
|         1 | /registry/configmaps/kube-system/kube-apiserver-legacy-service-account-token-tracking       |
|         1 | /registry/configmaps/kube-system/kube-root-ca.crt                                           |
|         1 | /registry/csinodes/node                                                                     |
|         1 | /registry/endpointslices/default/kubernetes                                                 |
|         1 | /registry/events/default/node.17de1624f3c1624f                                              |
|         1 | /registry/events/default/node.17de1624f3c1e6bb                                              |
|         1 | /registry/events/default/node.17de1624f3c25c4f                                              |
|         1 | /registry/events/default/node.17de1624f5b37dfb                                              |
|         1 | /registry/events/default/node.17de1639e7890c71                                              |
|         1 | /registry/events/default/node.17de168dce4cdb68                                              |
|         1 | /registry/events/default/node.17de16a194521b80                                              |
|         1 | /registry/events/kube-system/kine-node.17de162525650d9b                                     |
|         1 | /registry/events/kube-system/kine-node.17de1625275ca2d7                                     |
|         1 | /registry/events/kube-system/kine-node.17de16252f773864                                     |
|         1 | /registry/events/kube-system/kine-node.17de1625a5af90c0                                     |
|         1 | /registry/events/kube-system/kine-node.17de169d120062cc                                     |
|         1 | /registry/events/kube-system/kine-node.17de169d1361dab8                                     |
|         1 | /registry/events/kube-system/kine-node.17de169d1855aee6                                     |
|         1 | /registry/events/kube-system/kine-node.17de16a1969b1ed6                                     |
|         1 | /registry/events/kube-system/kube-apiserver-node.17de162513417e64                           |
|         1 | /registry/events/kube-system/kube-apiserver-node.17de1625158e863e                           |
|         1 | /registry/events/kube-system/kube-apiserver-node.17de162525e8ebd2                           |
|         1 | /registry/events/kube-system/kube-apiserver-node.17de1629c37f0b35                           |
|         1 | /registry/events/kube-system/kube-apiserver-node.17de1629f6bc718f                           |
|         1 | /registry/events/kube-system/kube-apiserver-node.17de162ecf004a1d                           |
|         1 | /registry/events/kube-system/kube-apiserver-node.17de162eff4060dd                           |
|         1 | /registry/events/kube-system/kube-apiserver-node.17de1637f005507c                           |
|         1 | /registry/events/kube-system/kube-apiserver-node.17de1661f1bd6879                           |
|         1 | /registry/events/kube-system/kube-apiserver-node.17de16620f441326                           |
|         1 | /registry/events/kube-system/kube-apiserver-node.17de16a1985f63bd                           |
|         1 | /registry/events/kube-system/kube-controller-manager-node.17de162511a4b3be                  |
|         1 | /registry/events/kube-system/kube-controller-manager-node.17de162512f837ca                  |
|         1 | /registry/events/kube-system/kube-controller-manager-node.17de16251d8b658b                  |
|         1 | /registry/events/kube-system/kube-controller-manager-node.17de169b0537b6d0                  |
|         1 | /registry/events/kube-system/kube-controller-manager-node.17de16a1971f3999                  |
|         1 | /registry/events/kube-system/kube-controller-manager.17de1638e6568ffc                       |
|         1 | /registry/events/kube-system/kube-controller-manager.17de168d8ed8b9cc                       |
|         1 | /registry/events/kube-system/kube-controller-manager.17de16a150704739                       |
|         1 | /registry/events/kube-system/kube-scheduler-node.17de162512917b00                           |
|         1 | /registry/events/kube-system/kube-scheduler-node.17de16251515909b                           |
|         1 | /registry/events/kube-system/kube-scheduler-node.17de16252295ae29                           |
|         1 | /registry/events/kube-system/kube-scheduler-node.17de162a7ee366d4                           |
|         1 | /registry/events/kube-system/kube-scheduler-node.17de169c038ba9cc                           |
|         1 | /registry/events/kube-system/kube-scheduler-node.17de169cf8755bf3                           |
|         1 | /registry/events/kube-system/kube-scheduler-node.17de16a19797a620                           |
|         1 | /registry/events/kube-system/kube-scheduler.17de1643dd024555                                |
|         1 | /registry/events/kube-system/kube-scheduler.17de168dbd6f19b1                                |
|         1 | /registry/events/kube-system/kube-scheduler.17de16a24a03d6c8                                |
|         1 | /registry/flowschemas/catch-all                                                             |
|         1 | /registry/flowschemas/endpoint-controller                                                   |
|         1 | /registry/flowschemas/exempt                                                                |
|         1 | /registry/flowschemas/global-default                                                        |
|         1 | /registry/flowschemas/kube-controller-manager                                               |
|         1 | /registry/flowschemas/kube-scheduler                                                        |
|         1 | /registry/flowschemas/kube-system-service-accounts                                          |
|         1 | /registry/flowschemas/probes                                                                |
|         1 | /registry/flowschemas/service-accounts                                                      |
|         1 | /registry/flowschemas/system-leader-election                                                |
|         1 | /registry/flowschemas/system-node-high                                                      |
|         1 | /registry/flowschemas/system-nodes                                                          |
|         1 | /registry/flowschemas/workload-leader-election                                              |
|         1 | /registry/health                                                                            |
|        97 | /registry/leases/kube-node-lease/node                                                       |
|        97 | /registry/leases/kube-system/apiserver-6cazmjvz5glfjbabvahmi5cwfy                           |
|       484 | /registry/leases/kube-system/kube-controller-manager                                        |
|       485 | /registry/leases/kube-system/kube-scheduler                                                 |
|        99 | /registry/masterleases/10.0.0.14                                                            |
|        33 | /registry/minions/node                                                                      |
|         1 | /registry/namespaces/default                                                                |
|         1 | /registry/namespaces/kube-node-lease                                                        |
|         1 | /registry/namespaces/kube-public                                                            |
|         1 | /registry/namespaces/kube-system                                                            |
|         1 | /registry/pods/kube-system/kine-node                                                        |
|         1 | /registry/pods/kube-system/kube-apiserver-node                                              |
|         1 | /registry/pods/kube-system/kube-controller-manager-node                                     |
|         1 | /registry/pods/kube-system/kube-scheduler-node                                              |
|         1 | /registry/priorityclasses/system-cluster-critical                                           |
|         1 | /registry/priorityclasses/system-node-critical                                              |
|         1 | /registry/prioritylevelconfigurations/catch-all                                             |
|         1 | /registry/prioritylevelconfigurations/exempt                                                |
|         1 | /registry/prioritylevelconfigurations/global-default                                        |
|         1 | /registry/prioritylevelconfigurations/leader-election                                       |
|         1 | /registry/prioritylevelconfigurations/node-high                                             |
|         1 | /registry/prioritylevelconfigurations/system                                                |
|         1 | /registry/prioritylevelconfigurations/workload-high                                         |
|         1 | /registry/prioritylevelconfigurations/workload-low                                          |
|         1 | /registry/ranges/serviceips                                                                 |
|         1 | /registry/ranges/servicenodeports                                                           |
|         1 | /registry/rolebindings/kube-public/system:controller:bootstrap-signer                       |
|         1 | /registry/rolebindings/kube-system/system::extension-apiserver-authentication-reader        |
|         1 | /registry/rolebindings/kube-system/system::leader-locking-kube-controller-manager           |
|         1 | /registry/rolebindings/kube-system/system::leader-locking-kube-scheduler                    |
|         1 | /registry/rolebindings/kube-system/system:controller:bootstrap-signer                       |
|         1 | /registry/rolebindings/kube-system/system:controller:cloud-provider                         |
|         1 | /registry/rolebindings/kube-system/system:controller:token-cleaner                          |
|         1 | /registry/roles/kube-public/system:controller:bootstrap-signer                              |
|         1 | /registry/roles/kube-system/extension-apiserver-authentication-reader                       |
|         1 | /registry/roles/kube-system/system::leader-locking-kube-controller-manager                  |
|         1 | /registry/roles/kube-system/system::leader-locking-kube-scheduler                           |
|         1 | /registry/roles/kube-system/system:controller:bootstrap-signer                              |
|         1 | /registry/roles/kube-system/system:controller:cloud-provider                                |
|         1 | /registry/roles/kube-system/system:controller:token-cleaner                                 |
|         1 | /registry/serviceaccounts/default/default                                                   |
|         1 | /registry/serviceaccounts/kube-node-lease/default                                           |
|         1 | /registry/serviceaccounts/kube-public/default                                               |
|         1 | /registry/serviceaccounts/kube-system/attachdetach-controller                               |
|         1 | /registry/serviceaccounts/kube-system/bootstrap-signer                                      |
|         1 | /registry/serviceaccounts/kube-system/certificate-controller                                |
|         1 | /registry/serviceaccounts/kube-system/clusterrole-aggregation-controller                    |
|         1 | /registry/serviceaccounts/kube-system/cronjob-controller                                    |
|         1 | /registry/serviceaccounts/kube-system/daemon-set-controller                                 |
|         1 | /registry/serviceaccounts/kube-system/default                                               |
|         1 | /registry/serviceaccounts/kube-system/deployment-controller                                 |
|         1 | /registry/serviceaccounts/kube-system/disruption-controller                                 |
|         1 | /registry/serviceaccounts/kube-system/endpoint-controller                                   |
|         1 | /registry/serviceaccounts/kube-system/endpointslice-controller                              |
|         1 | /registry/serviceaccounts/kube-system/endpointslicemirroring-controller                     |
|         1 | /registry/serviceaccounts/kube-system/ephemeral-volume-controller                           |
|         1 | /registry/serviceaccounts/kube-system/expand-controller                                     |
|         1 | /registry/serviceaccounts/kube-system/generic-garbage-collector                             |
|         1 | /registry/serviceaccounts/kube-system/horizontal-pod-autoscaler                             |
|         1 | /registry/serviceaccounts/kube-system/job-controller                                        |
|         1 | /registry/serviceaccounts/kube-system/namespace-controller                                  |
|         1 | /registry/serviceaccounts/kube-system/node-controller                                       |
|         1 | /registry/serviceaccounts/kube-system/persistent-volume-binder                              |
|         1 | /registry/serviceaccounts/kube-system/pod-garbage-collector                                 |
|         1 | /registry/serviceaccounts/kube-system/pv-protection-controller                              |
|         1 | /registry/serviceaccounts/kube-system/pvc-protection-controller                             |
|         1 | /registry/serviceaccounts/kube-system/replicaset-controller                                 |
|         1 | /registry/serviceaccounts/kube-system/replication-controller                                |
|         1 | /registry/serviceaccounts/kube-system/resourcequota-controller                              |
|         1 | /registry/serviceaccounts/kube-system/root-ca-cert-publisher                                |
|         1 | /registry/serviceaccounts/kube-system/service-account-controller                            |
|         1 | /registry/serviceaccounts/kube-system/service-controller                                    |
|         1 | /registry/serviceaccounts/kube-system/statefulset-controller                                |
|         1 | /registry/serviceaccounts/kube-system/token-cleaner                                         |
|         1 | /registry/serviceaccounts/kube-system/ttl-after-finished-controller                         |
|         1 | /registry/serviceaccounts/kube-system/ttl-controller                                        |
|         1 | /registry/services/endpoints/default/kubernetes                                             |
|         1 | /registry/services/specs/default/kubernetes                                                 |
|         1 | compact_rev_key                                                                             |
+-----------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
271 rows in set (0.00 sec)

如上所示,有一个名为的表 “kine”包含所有数据。Kine 使用数据库作为日志结构存储,因此来自 API 服务器的每次写入都会创建一个新行来存储已创建或更新的 Kubernetes 对象,“name” 列使用与 etcd 相同的存储结构 “/registry/RESOURCE_TYPE/NAMESPACE/NAME” 表示集群中对象。

k3s 资源分析

k3s 官方提供了 Resource Profiling [5] 来对比了 RDBMS 与 etcd 的性能对比。

总结

因为 RDBMS 大家都很熟悉,并且更高性能的分布式解决方案也有很多,例如 YugabyteDB (PostgreSQL兼容的分布式数据库),也可以预创建 kine 表,通过分区形式将不同数据存储到不同的分区内。而且 k8s 对象的历史数据也是可以根据一定的规则进行删除,因为 kubernetes 中的对象都是实时协调的,所以也不怕误删除,这样就会使得 kubernetes 规模有更大扩展的可能。

Reference

[1] Worrying state of Etcd community

[2] Kine (Kine is not etcd)

[3] Installing kubeadm, kubelet and kubectl

[4] Minimal example of using kine

[5] resource-profiling

[6] Goodbye etcd, Hello PostgreSQL: Running Kubernetes with an SQL Database

本文发布于Cylon的收藏册,转载请著名原文链接~

链接:https://www.oomkill.com/2024/06/kubernetes-without-etcd-step-by-step/

版权:本作品采用「署名-非商业性使用-相同方式共享 4.0 国际」 许可协议进行许可。